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老照片:20世纪哥特风校园——中西女塾

来源:上海日报  发布日期:2015-02-11 22:01

编者按:当西方教育硬生生地搬进了中国,发生了许多改变,也萌生了许多新思维。譬如男女平等。中西女塾也这样的环境下诞生了。

“中西女塾的女生们都有着远大目标和崇高理想…她们为了国家民族的利益和要求,勇往直前。与这些女生中任何一个交流后,你会发现,她们对自己的人生都充满着最美好的期待。”——1920年版中西女塾校规 (上海图书馆馆藏)

The 1920 catalogue of McTyeire School proudly states McTyeire girls “are usually young women of purpose and noble ideals ... They are going out into their nation’s needs with brave hearts and worthy motives. A close talk with any one of them reveals the fact that she wants to make her life count for the greatest possible good.”


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

上图的馆藏中有一本1920年版中西女塾校规,刊登着一张让人印象深刻的照片:十几个中国女孩在上生物课。身穿中式白裙的她们围着一张张八仙桌而坐,脑后都拖着一条长长的乌黑的发辫。这些中式元素与女孩们认真观察的西洋显微镜形成了有趣的对比,也映射了女校的名字—中西。

就在一年后,邬达克代表的美商克利洋行参加了新校区的竞标。他提交了一个很赞的美国学院派哥特风格方案,完胜所有对手,其中包括设计燕京大学的著名美国建筑师亨利•墨菲(Henry Murphy)。

The 1920 catalogue of McTyeire School contains a nice photo of a biology class. A dozen Chinese girls wearing white skirts are looking into microscopes in a lab filled with specimens.

One year later, R.A. Curry’s firm, represented by architect Laszlo Hudec, entered the bidding to design the school’s new campus buildings. Hudec’s plan called for finely designed American Collegiate Gothic buildings. It was chosen over those from rivals such as renowned American architect Henry Murphy.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

墨菲自1913起在中国做了许多学校项目。他超爱中国传统建筑,擅长在中式风格里植入现代功能。但也许在上海中式建筑的影响还是比较小吧,墨菲在PK之后惜败于邬达克。

据研究邬达克多年的同济大学副教授华霞虹介绍,美国学院派哥特式风格庄重而典雅,是19世纪末到1930年代在美国校园极为流行的建筑风格,也比较契合业主的心意。

而与巴黎圣母院那种高耸瑰丽的中世纪哥特风不同,学院派哥特风格在结构功能布局上已是现代建筑。所以呢,邬达克设计的两座女校大楼看上去还是蛮现代的。

Murphy, who had designed many school buildings in China from 1913 to 1929, possibly proposed combining modern function with traditional Chinese architectural styles.

“But traditional Chinese architecture had less of an impact in Shanghai,” says Shanghai Tongji University associate professor Hua Xiahong, who is now a visiting scholar at Yale University. “I think Hudec’s choice of Collegiate Gothic — a solemn, elegant architectural style popular in American schools and colleges from the late 19th century to 1930s — better matched the ideas of the school.

“Unlike Medieval Gothic style, a Collegiate Gothic building is a modern building in terms of structure, function and layout, such as the two buildings that Hudec designed for the McTyeire School,” Hua adds.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

这所美国教会女校1892年在汉口路(今沐恩堂东侧)创办时招到的女生居然不足10人。不过那还是晚清嘛,女孩子上学可是新鲜事物。1920年的校规里说,学校真正的创立者并非女传教士海淑德,而是美国南方监理公会著名传教士林乐知。

林乐知1882年在上海先办了一所男校--中西书院,他很快就感到有必要再创办一所类似的女校,让这些男生的姐妹们啊都能接受教育。而且不仅要学习中国传统经典,还要学外语、西方文学和自然科学知识,真是“学贯中西”的说。

The Christian school for girls started off with less than 10 students in 1892 on Hankou Road, east of Moore Memorial Church, another Hudec design. The catalogue notes that although Laura Haygood was regarded as the school’s founder, it was a long-cherished plan of John Allen, a famous Southern Methodist Church missionary from the United States.

“When Dr Allen founded the Anglo-Chinese College for boys in Shanghai, he saw the necessity of having a similar school, in which the sisters of the boys, children of the well-to-do classes, could receive a liberal education, including not only the classical learning of their own sages, but language, literature, and science of the West,” the catalogue states.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

中西女塾很快就因优异的教学水平而声名鹊起,吸引了很多华人精英把女儿送来学习。1919-20学年,学校招生人数就剧增到423人,宋氏三姐妹也是这所学校培养出来的。

激增的学生人数让教室好挤啊,学校就在忆定盘路(现江苏路)购地扩建。

Soon the school began to appeal to the Chinese upper-class as it had established a reputation for providing excellent education to girls. Enrollment rose to 423 in the 1919-20 school year and even the famous Soong sisters studied there.

With its classrooms becoming crowded, the school purchased land on Edinburgh Road (today’s Jiangsu Road) and chose Curry’s firm to design new buildings.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

1922年英文报纸Shanghai Sunday Times将邬达克与克利形容为一对“梦幻组合”,而这项设计任务也充满了挑战。“要一位20世纪的建筑师来诠释中世纪建筑风格。建筑要接受20世纪人们的审视目光,使用者还是与西方世界有着截然不同生活习惯的东方人群,看起来似乎是个不可能完成的任务。”

A news feature in 1922 Shanghai Sunday Times praised Curry and Hudec as ideal partners for the project.

However, “to construct such a building in Shanghai, a 14th-century building designed by a 20th-century architect, to be not only looked at with 20th-century eyes but used by an alien race, whose living customs are ¬entirely different from the Western world, would seem almost an impossibility.”


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

项目一开始就有650人在同时施工。1922年春,一栋高三层半的大楼完工了。大楼面向花园,高耸的红色双坡瓦屋顶上嵌着老虎窗,底层为平缓的尖券敞廊。为纪念刚刚去世的南方监理会主教,该楼取名为蓝华德堂(今五一大楼)。

The project began with a team of 650 workers. A three-and-a-half-story building was planned and completed in the spring of 1922.

Facing a huge garden, the building featured a lancet corridor and a steep, red-colored double sloping roof graced by dormers. The building was named “Lambuth Hall” (today’s May 1 Building) in the memory of the late Bishop Walter Russell Lambuth.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

但由于资金短缺,项目中途停工,直到1935年,另一幢教学楼——连吉生堂才建成(以第二位校长的名字命名,现五四大楼)。

这栋大楼呈T字形,砖木混合结构,高度也是三层半。朝南有一排教室,背后是大礼堂。设计简洁而不失优雅。

But a shortage of funds led to a work stoppage and the other building, Richardson Hall, named after the school’s second headmaster Helen Richardson and today’s May 4 Building, was not completed until 1935.

The T-shaped, brick-and-wood structure is also three and a half stories high and has a giant red-tile sloping roof with dormers. With a line of classrooms facing south and an auditorium in the back, the building was simple, yet elegant.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

据华教授介绍,两个建筑围合了一片草坪,形成公共空间,对称布局。建筑大部分的空间和形式都很现代,但局部采用哥特元素,如哥特窗、柱廊和拱券,这样的设计节约造价,效果也非常好。

Professor Hua says Hudec designed a great building. “The two buildings circle a big lawn and thus create a large, symmetrical public space,” she says. “To save money, Hudec designed most parts of the buildings in a simple-cut modern way but adapted refined Gothic elements such as Gothic windows with stained glass, colonnades and arches. The final effect is great.”


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

1952年,学校与张爱玲母校圣玛利亚女中合并,为上海市第三女子中学,仍是一所女校。市三女中现有近900位女生,学校针对女生特点设置了教育剧场、茶艺、西餐礼仪、地理环保等特色课程,与90多年前中西女塾的一些课程异曲同工。

In 1952, McTyeire School and St Mary’s Hall, another top missionary school for girls where the famous writer Aileen Chang studied, were merged; it was renamed Shanghai No. 3 Girls’ High School.

Today the school has about 900 students and the curriculum includes special classes for girls like theater, tea ceremony, Western culinary etiquette and natural sciences.

That mirrors the courses given more than 90 years ago, when McTyeire girls were taught music, etiquette, arts of life and Western sciences.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

两座大楼围合的草坪曾被改为塑胶运动场,在近期修缮中恢复了昔日的绿色。老校友郑德芳回忆:“这片草地是那么大,那么绿,坐在教室里听课听烦了,淘气的学生如我辈,斜眼看着草地,心也就飞出去了,烦恼也消了许多。”

在邬达克打造的20世纪哥特风的校园里,21世纪豆蔻年华的女孩子们,仍在欣然蓬勃地成长,就像近一个世纪前一样。

A recent revamp has seen the lawn restored after it had earlier been converted into a sports ground.

Zheng Defang, who attended McTyeire School back in the 1930s, still remembers her time there. “The lawn was so big and green,” she says. “When I was bored in class, I would glance at the lawn. Then my heart flew out of the window and my worries were gone.”

The campus that Hudec has contributed to has created a learning environment where girls can thrive.


哥特风校园中西女塾(图源网络)

建筑名片

旧名:中西女塾

现名:上海市第三女子中学

建筑年份:五一大楼建于1921年,五四大楼建于1935年

建筑风格:美国学院派哥特式风格

地址:江苏路155号

参观指南:很遗憾,建筑不对外开放哦!

Tips: Visitors are usually not allowed to enter the school.(文/佚名)

编者注:虽然这沉重的一棍,让我们丧失了许多,但在疼痛中,让我们明白,不思进取的人永远得不到荣誉与地位。不断学习,才是王道。

原标题:拾贝|中西女塾培养了多位女神珍贵老照片带你逛20世纪哥特风校园


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